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Basic Horsepower Upgrades - 1G 4G63T

Posted by 19Eclipse90, Mar 22, 2014

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  1. 19Eclipse90

    19Eclipse90 DSM Wiseman

    4,159
    470
    Joined Sep 29, 2003
    OKC, Oklahoma
    Increasing the Horsepower in a 1G Turbo

    So you want more power out of your 1G turbo DSM? Make sure you learn a few things before making some common "noob" mistakes. DSM's have a reputation of going fast for cheap. But they're regularly neglected and have gained an unfair reputation of being unreliable. Most "noobs" want to spend all their money on go-fast parts and put no money or effort into maintenance. Don't be one of those people. Do your maintenance and don't start modding until all the necessary maintenance is done. Otherwise you're just asking for trouble.

    The first thing you need to do is a complete tune up. Replace all worn belts, including the timing belt and balance shaft belt. If the timing belt/balance shaft belt haven't been replaced within the last 60k miles, or you're not sure when they were last changed - change them now. If they break, you'll be paying for a cylinder head rebuild (not cheap). You'll also want to change out all filters, fluids, worn hoses, spark plugs/wires, and worn/leaking gaskets. Check the compression, do a leak-down test, check your ignition timing, etc. Basically, do all of the checks that your repair manual tells you to do - you do have a repair manual already, don't you? If not, pick one up now before moving forward with any modifications. All of this is covered in the DSM Maintenance Guide.

    Once you've gotten all of the necessary maintenance out of the way, you can start with the modifications. We've broken it down into two common stages to help you achieve your goals gradually. These formulas have been used by the top DSM tuning shops/racers in the industry. Before you start shopping for big turbos, intakes and headers, read our article on the common mistakes and misconceptions by newbie DSMers, and read the staged upgrade paths to the right.

    tech-1gt_zpsff3f9744.jpg

    Required reading before you start modding:

    Want to find members who are making big power or running fast 1/4 mile times to see what mods they have done to their cars? Here are some excellent resources:

    DSM Timeslips Database
    DSM Dyno Database


    A few things to keep in mind when you start modding:
    • Set a goal/budget before buying any parts. No plan = more money later.
    • Be realistic with those goals and plans. What will your car be used for?
    • There is no "best" part when it comes to modding.
    • Find out the emissions requirements in your area before choosing parts.
    • Do your research before you buy parts - make sure the parts you buy will work together well.
    • Usable power under the curve is important, not just overall horsepower numbers.
    • Work within your budget.
    Upgrade Paths:
    • Stage 0: Free Mods
      For the cheap folks who can't afford the bolt-ons and just want a little more "umph".
    • Stage 1: 275-300hp
      Ready to get your hands dirty? The first steps to making power with the turbocharged DSM is to turn up the boost and open up the air intake and exhaust restrictions. A typical Stage 1 setup can cost around $2000 for parts and can typically raise power output on a turbocharged 1G DSM to about 300hp at the crank (about 250whp).
    • Stage 2: 350-400hp
      Once the basic upgrades have been done, it's time to start looking into larger turbos and intercoolers, as well as learning the basics of fuel tuning - as bolting on parts is only half the battle at this stage. A Stage 2 setup can cost around $5000 for parts and can raise power output on a 1G DSM to nearly 400hp or more depending on the turbo upgrade and level of tuning (that's around 340whp).

    **Disclaimer -- This is copied from the site's "Tech Guide: Upgrade Paths" section; I am not the author of this information.**
     
    Last edited: Jun 21, 2014
    KianaLynn and Marcel like this.
  2. 19Eclipse90

    19Eclipse90 DSM Wiseman

    4,159
    470
    Joined Sep 29, 2003
    OKC, Oklahoma
    Step 1: Remove Emissions Vacuum Lines
    The four small rubber hoses that go from your throttle body into the engine bay have no purpose other than to activate the emissions equipment. Remove all of them. They go down to the thermostat housing and then back behind the engine, and then BLOCK OFF the throttle body ports with little vacuum caps, RTV, and zip ties. This will make your car illegal in the eyes of the emissions test facilities. If you're not worried about passing emissions tests, then proceed with this step and the next. Be sure to read the complete Taboo speed shop vacuum diagram and removal for 1g and 2g article as well.​


    Step 2: Block Off the EGR
    The EGR valve is located below the throttle body elbow. It re-routes exhaust gases back into the intake manifold for emissions purposes. Use a piece of sheet metal to block it off, just replace the gasket. Many DSM shops sell these, or you can make one from a piece of sheet metal. This will also make your car illegal in the eyes of the emissions testing facilities. In case you missed it, be sure to read the complete Taboo speed shop vacuum diagram and removal for 1g and 2g article as well.​


    Step 3: \"Hack\" MAF -- Be aware of what this actually does: 1g maf hack/silencer removal, some tech questions
    There are several \"hacks\" to the mass airflow meter that will solve a plethora of problems that plague these cars. Take the whole aircan out of the car, and remove the filter. On the intake side, you will see 2 honeycombs. Remove the lower one. Below it, you will see a large plastic screw set up into the bottom of the air canal. Back it out a bit. On the other side of the MAF, there is a star-shaped silencer, remove it.​
    0517141322-00.jpg

    Step 4: Hack Air Can and Intake Area
    While the air can is out of the car, do some more hacking. The stock air can has a rather restrictive opening, as well as a restrictive path for the air to take. At the least, drill off the rivets holding the snorkel on, and at best chop the front side of the can off. Also, remove the black plastic screen (encircled below) that is behind the headlight and chuck it.​
    BlackPlasticScreen.jpg


    Step 5: Remove Ridge in TB Elbow
    The first generation throttle body elbow has a ridge inside it where it bends, remove it from the car and use a tool such as a Dremel or maybe even a file to remove this and smooth the inside out. Make sure to clean all the metal chips out.​


    Step 6: Clean Throttle Body
    Using a throttle body or carburetor cleaner, clean the throttle plate and the inside of the throttle body. IMPORTANT: make sure to stuff a rag into the holes at the bottom of the TB, or the cleaner will get in there and kill the mechanisms down there. Then, use the can and a rag to clean it all out. When you're done with that, you can start the car with the intake pipe unplugged, and spray a can right into the throttle body. You can also spray the can into any line that sees vacuum at idle.​


    Step 7: Verify that WOT is 100%
    With the car turned off, have someone sit in the car and floor the gas pedal, and then check to see if you can rotate the throttle plate any more by hand. If you can, it could be due to the cable being out of adjustment (adjust on the back of the intake manifold, 2 bolts) or something like a floor mat keeping the pedal from going all the way down. Fix this.​


    Step 8: Check IC outlet Pipe for Corrosion
    The intercooler outlet pipe on the older cars has a tendency to corrode and leak out boost. Take the plastic fender liner off the car (take off passenger side wheel), take the intercooler out, and if it has ANY signs of corrosion, coat the entire upper pipe with JB-Weld. This is also a good time to:​


    Step 9: Open up the Fender Liner (for example: Anyone done anything with the left air duct (RE: brake cooling)?)
    You can use a sanding wheel (Dremel, die grinder, etc) to open up the vents in the fender liner behind the intercooler. Some people just cut it out and replace it with a screen/wire mesh, that works too. ALSO, make sure that you have the duct in front of the intercooler in place and that it seals up. While the intercooler is still out:​


    Step 10: Clean the Intercooler
    Use a cleaner such as simple green, greased lightning, or gasoline to clean out the inside of the intercooler. It gets filled up with oil over time, which can reduce it's efficiency. Make sure to get it nice and clean, until the water and cleaner comes out clear. Let it dry out completely.​


    Step 11: Remove the BCS Restrictor
    If you do not have a manual boost controller, you can safely up the boost about 1-2 psi by removing the restrictor in the boost control (a.k.a waste gate) solenoid. In the nipple that is perpendicular to the body of the solenoid, you can insert a screw or a drill bit, and then pull out the restrictor. Make SURE not to drill into the body!!!​


    Step 12: Check Base Timing
    Buy or borrow a timing light. Hook it up as per the instructions. Ground the black timing connector on the firewall behind the battery, and if you have a logger UNPLUG IT. Check to see that the base timing (crank pulley) is set at 5 degrees of advance. If not, loosen and rotate the crank angle sensor until it is. Read this guide if you are unsure of this process: Engine Timing.​


    Step 13: Valve Cover Vent Breather
    DO NOT replace the hose from the valve cover breather (left side of the valve cover) to the intake pipe with a simple breather filter and cap the intake pipe nipple! Instead, use a catch can. This keeps oil out of the intake pipes and the intercooler. If you want to do this even better, check out: The 4G63T PCV System.​


    Step 14: Unplug Clutch Switch
    Under the dash on the clutch pedal assembly, there is a switch that will only allow the car to be turned on if the clutch is pushed in. Just unplug this so that you can start the car without touching the clutch, it's better for the thrust bearing. The plug is on the front side of the clutch pedal assembly, so that it is only pressed when the clutch is all the way in.​


    Step 15: Pressure Test the Intake
    This is one of the MOST CRUCIAL things you can do to make sure your car is running properly! Does your car ever sputter, misfire, fuel cut, bog, idle badly, or smoke (black)under boost? It could be a boost leak! You need to build a pressure tester that will clamp onto the turbo and lt you use a bike pump or an air compressor to send pressure into the IC pipes and the manifold. ANY and ALL leaks should be fixed! The only thing I know of that should leak is the manual boost controller. Want to build your own boost leak tester? Read how here: IC Pipe Tester.​



    **Disclaimer -- This is copied from the site's "Tech Guide: Upgrade Paths" section; I am not the author of this information.**
     
    Last edited: Jun 21, 2014
    Marcel likes this.
  3. 19Eclipse90

    19Eclipse90 DSM Wiseman

    4,159
    470
    Joined Sep 29, 2003
    OKC, Oklahoma
    Step 1: Intake Pipe and Filter
    A high-flow K&N (or similar) intake filter will help throttle response and help all future mods achieve maximum performance. A hard intake pipe will also improve air flow over the factory rubber snorkel. This, along with the MAS modifications should take care of your intake needs at this stage.

    dejon-cip-1gf.jpg » Shop for Intake upgrades


    Step 2: Aftermarket Boost Gauge
    The factory boost gauge is simply not accurate and shouldn't be trusted when raising boost levels. To avoid severe engine damage when increasing boost levels, an aftermarket unit is mandatory. You'll find many brands to choose from, including Autometer, Greddy, Apex'i, Blitz, HKS, Defi, and many more.

    boost-gauge.jpg » Shop for Gauges


    Step 3: Boost Controller
    In order to raise boost levels, you'll need a boost controller. Whether it be a manual or electronic unit will depend on your budget. Electronic boost controllers are cool looking, but most have been known to be unreliable at over 25psi. At this stage, you won't be turning the boost up past 16psi, so it won't be a problem. But if you plan on moving up to the next stage, a manual boost controller may be better.

    extreme-mbc.jpg » Shop for Boost Controllers


    Step 4: Cat-back Exhaust System
    A 2.5" or 3" high flow exhaust system is needed to gain more power. You can choose between aluminized steel or stainless steel depending on your budget. If your power goals are over 400hp, you'll want a full 3" system from the turbo all the way back. A "cat-back" system replaces the exhaust components from the catalytic convertor to the exhaust tip. A "turbo-back" system replaces the entire exhaust system, and is made up of a "cat-back" plus a downpipe and high-flow cat/straight pipe.

    hksHiPower.jpg » Shop for Cat-back Exhausts


    Step 5: High Flow Cat/Straight Pipe
    Replace the factory catalytic converter with a larger, higher flowing unit. For off road use, simply bolt up a straight pipe in it's place - of course, this is obviously not street legal.
    hfcatsmall.jpg

    Step 6: High Flow Downpipe
    The factory downpipe is very restrictive and should be replaced with a larger, better flowing unit. For Stage 1, a 2.5" downpipe will do. If future plans involve 400+ horsepower, consider a 3" downpipe. These are available in press-bent aluminized steel for those on a budget, or mandrel-bent stainless steel for those with a little more cash to spend.

    hahndownpipe.jpg » Shop for Downpipes


    Step 7: Exhaust Manifold
    The exhaust manifold on 1G DSMs are notorious for cracking and leaking. The solution is to replace it with a ported factory 95-99 exhaust manifold or aftermarket tubular header. If you're planning on going with a full Garrett turbo, you'll need a manifold that is made to bolt up to a Garret turbo.

    sfp-header.jpg » Shop for Exhaust Manifolds


    Step 8: O2 Sensor Housing
    In between the turbo and the downpipe is a 90 degree elbow called the O2 Sensor Housing. The O2 sensor screws into this housing. This is the last restriction in the exhaust system. The stock unit can be ported out, or you can simply buy a better flowing unit. If you choose to go with a "turbo-back" exhaust system, this housing will automatically be replaced.

    hahn.jpg » Shop for O2 Sensor Housings


    Step 9: Fuel Pump
    The stock fuel pump will not be able to supply the needed fuel for anything over 16psi of boost. Though you won't need to go past that in this stage, it's still cheap insurance to put in at least a 190Lph fuel pump to ensure you have enough fuel in case you want to raise the boost with race gas in the tank. It's also a good idea to re-wire the fuel pump for consistent fuel pressure. If you go with a 255lph pump, you'll need an adjustable fuel pressure regulator.

    walbro-fuelpump.jpg » Shop for High flow Fuel Pumps


    Step 10: Intercooler Piping
    The rubber intercooler piping should be replaced with better flowing solid pipes. Some replacements will come with a larger throttle body elbow (which is needed also). The turbo outlet elbow should be swapped out for a larger unit as well. Please note that if a Stage 2 setup is in the plans, this upgrade may not be necessary as the intercooler piping will likely be routed differently with a front mount intercooler.
    buschur-upperic-pipe.jpg » Shop for Intercooler Pipes



    Drivetrain Upgrades

    • Performance Clutch
      With more power on tap, the stock clutch probably won't last that long. It will start to slip, especially in the higher gears. This means it's time for a high performance clutch that can handle the increased horsepower.

      RAM-clutch.jpg » Shop for Aftermarket Clutches
    • Shifter Mods
      If you have a 5-speed tranny, you'll notice that the shifting is likely less-than-desirable on the 90-94 cars. These transmissions tend to be notchy from the factory to begin with. The best solution short of a rebuild is to put in some good tranny fluid and replace the rubber bushings in the system with some metal bushings. This should help with grinding and missed shifts as well.

      pacesetter-shortshifter.jpg
    • Limited Slip Differentials
      If you have a front wheel drive DSM, you'll probably need an aftermarket LSD to keep the tires from spinning - especially if you plan on making more than the stage 1 power levels. FWD cars will have a more difficult time achieving fast 1/4 mile times compared to the AWD cars due to traction. Transmission rebuilds are the most opportune time to install LSDs, since the transmission is already being taken apart.

      quaife-dif.jpg » Shop for Limited Slip Differentials
    • Auto Transmission Upgrades
      The number of turbocharged automatic transmission DSMs around is growing and there are modifications available to those looking to improve shifting, help handle increased horsepower, and just make driving more enjoyable.

      category-at-parts.jpg » Shop for A/T Upgrades

      Please Note: 1G automatic transmission cars have a smaller stock turbo (the Mitsubishi 13G) than the 5-speed cars and will require a turbo upgrade in order to achieve Stage 1 performance levels.
      See all available Turbo Upgrades.

    300hp not enough? Check the Stage 2 Upgrade Path >

    **Disclaimer -- This is copied from the site's "Tech Guide: Upgrade Paths" section; I am not the author of this information.**
     
    Marcel likes this.
  4. 19Eclipse90

    19Eclipse90 DSM Wiseman

    4,159
    470
    Joined Sep 29, 2003
    OKC, Oklahoma
    -----The modifications here require all of the Stage 1 Mods, minus the Upper Intercooler Pipe upgrade.-----

    Step 1: Logging Software
    Before you can safely begin making fuel adjustments, you'll need to know what's going on inside the engine. Logging software will give you this data and will help you decide what fuel delivery changes are needed, how much change is needed, and at what RPM point. Though datalogging is mainly for tuning, it's also a critical tool to prevent major engine damage as well.

    palm-105.jpg » Shop for data logging options

    Step 2: Warning Meters
    Along with a datalogging solution, you'll want some gauges to help monitor the engine. While dataloggers allow you to analyze data after doing some test runs, guages are easier to read while driving. An EGT (exhaust gas temperature) gauge and probe will allow you to monitor the exhaust temperature exiting the engine. Extremely high temps generally translate into a lean condition and can be catastrophic. You can also go with a Wideband O2 system that will allow you to monitor the air/fuel ration of your car while driving. This will tell you exactly how rich or how lean the car is running, allowing you to adjust the fuel curve accordingly.

    autometer-egt.jpg » Shop for Gauges

    Step 3: Fuel Controller/Engine Management
    In order to control the flow of fuel of the larger injectors, you'll need some form of a fuel management system. The factory system simply cannot control the changes you've made/are going to make. There are a variety of ways you can go here. The most common route is a piggy-back style computer which still uses the factory MAS in combination with a reprogrammed EPROM chip that plugs into the factory ECU. The drawback to this is that some cars didn't come with an ECU that utilizes an EPROM, making an ECU swap necessary. Another option is a stand alone fuel system which completely replaces the MAS system altogether. Stand alone systems give you much greater tuning capability, but may require more knowledge of fuel tuning than the average weekend warrior may possess. Either route you choose will allow you to run larger-than-stock fuel injectors - which will be needed very soon.

    apex-safc.jpg
    » Shop for Fuel Controllers
    » Shop for ECU Upgrades and Stand-alones

    Step 4: Fuel Injector Upgrade
    To supply the amount of fuel needed for a larger turbo, the stock fuel injectors will need to be replaced with higher flowing units. The larger the turbo you plan on upgrading to, the larger the injectors you'll likely need. If swapping in a 16G turbo, you can get away with 550cc injectors. Most T3/T4 combos will require at least 650cc and up.

    delphia-injectors.jpg » Shop for High flow Fuel Injectors

    Step 5: Front Mount Intercooler Kit
    The stock side mount intercooler will not be able to cool the amount of air flow needed to produce 400hp or more. Thus, it will need to be swapped out for a Front Mount Intercooler. This install is pretty involved, especially if you choose a kit that routes the piping around the sides of the radiator. Most kits require some trimming of the steel bumper and some dremeling of the plastic bumper cover. Most "street" kits will do for this stage. But if more than 400hp is desired, you might want to consider a "race" kit which will have a larger core for better cooling characteristics.

    irc-streetcore.jpg » Shop for FMIC kits

    Step 6: Turbo Upgrade
    At this point, the stock 14b turbo is running at it's max. In order to increase boost, a larger turbo is necessary. You'll need something larger than a 16G or 18G in order to achieve power levels above the 375hp mark. A Mitsubishi 20G, a Mitsu-Garrett hybrid, or a full Garrett setup will be needed for higher horsepower levels. Keep in mind that any non-Mitsu or non-Mitsu hybrid turbo (like a full Garrett) will require a special exhaust manifold, external wastegate and O2 sensor housing. This is the point where you'll have to decide what your car will be used for. The larger turbos are great for drag strip action, but not so great for road race and autocross use - something to keep in mind.

    » Shop for Turbos



    Drivetrain Upgrades​


    • Performance Clutch
      With more power on tap, the stock clutch probably won't last that long. It will start to slip, especially in the higher gears. This means it's time for a high performance clutch that can handle the increased horsepower.

      RAM-clutch_zps3420751c.jpg » Shop for Aftermarket Clutches
    • Lightened Flywheel
      To help your engine rev quicker, try a lightened flywheel. Most are stronger than stock, and can handle the abuse seen at the track.

      clutchmasters-flywheel.jpg » Shop for Flywheels
    • Shifter Mods
      If you have a 5-speed tranny, you'll notice that the shifting is likely less-than-desirable on the 90-94 cars. These transmissions tend to be notchy from the factory to begin with. The best solution short of a rebuild is to put in some good tranny fluid and replace the rubber bushings in the system with some metal bushings. This should help with grinding and missed shifts as well.​
      pacesetter-shortshifter_zpsd1383de3.jpg
    • Limited Slip Differentials
      If you have a front wheel drive DSM, you'll probably need an aftermarket LSD to keep the tires from spinning - especially if you plan on making more than the stage 1 power levels. FWD cars will have a more difficult time achieving fast 1/4 mile times compared to the AWD cars due to traction. Transmission rebuilds are the most opportune time to install LSDs, since the tranny is already being taken apart.

      quaife-dif_zps459d96c8.jpg » Shop for Limited Slip Differentials
    • Auto Tranny Upgrades
      The number of turbocharged automatic transmission DSMs around is growing and there are modifications available to those looking to improve shifting, help handle increased horsepower, and just make driving more enjoyable.

      category-at-parts_zpscc96d240.jpg » Shop for A/T Upgrades



    Other Upgrades/Modifications​


    • Helmet
      If you're planning to be putting down a ton of power, it's a good idea to start thinking about safety - both yours and those around you. First of all, you should be taking your car to the track regularly to do all of your testing. Keep the racing off the city streets. When you're at the track, you'll notice they have some rules and regulations in place for safety. Most tracks require you to wear a helmet if your car runs a 13.99 second 1/4 mile time or faster. If you're doing any road course or autocross racing, a helmet is always required.

      racing-helmets_zpsb92596f4.jpg
    • Roll Cage
      Most tracks require your car to have a roll cage installed if your car runs an 11.99 second 1/4 mile time or faster. If you're doing any road course or autocross racing, a roll cage is totally necessary.
      roll-cages.jpg
    • Racing Seats/Harnesses
      For more safety and driving control, look into some good supportive racing seats and harnesses to keep you firmly planted in the proper driving position. You'll find a variety of manufacturers for the racing seats, including Sparco, Corbeau, Recaro, etc. Sparco Racing seats tend to be quite popular among DSMers for some reason.
      racing-seats.jpg

    Once you've completed these mods, and only then, will you have enough knowledge of how these cars handle power to go further. You should now know how tricky the art of tuning can be, and you're likely well versed in spending money on parts and repairs. It is possible to get well over 600 horsepower out of the 4G63 engine, but it will require rebuilding the motor with some forged pistons, strong rods, more aggressive cams, porting the cylinder head, etc. You can even go with a stroker kit to add displacement for bigger torque! Be prepared to spend some big money - especially when things start breaking due to the excessive power output. And things will break.

    **Disclaimer -- This is copied from the site's "Tech Guide: Upgrade Paths" section; I am not the author of this information.**
     
    Pd216, MidnightGSX and Marcel like this.

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